The complexities of coalition formation in the Netherlands has been the object of many studies. On the procedure of cabinet formations, see for example: P.F. Maas, Coalition Negotiations in the Dutch Multi-Party System, Parliamentary Affairs, Vol.39 (1986), pp. 214-229. 


On the relation between coalition formation and the party system, see for example:

  • K. Gladdish, Governing the Dutch, Acta Politica, Vol.25 (1990), pp. 389-402
  • J. de Jong and B. Pijnenburg, The Dutch Christian Democratic Party and Coalitional Behaviour in the Netherlands: a Pivotal Party in the Face of Depillarisation, in: G. Pridham (ed.), Coalitional Behaviour in Theory and Practice: an Inductive Model for Western Europe, Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp. 145-170. 

On the outcome of the negotiations in the light of coalition theories, see for example:

  • P. van Roozendaal, Cabinets in the Netherlands (1918-1990): the Importance of „Dominant” and „Central” Parties, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 23 (1993), pp. 35-54
  • A.M.A. van Deemen, Theories of Center Parties and Cabinet Formations: With an Application to the Dutch Parliamentary System, Acta Politica, Vol. 25 (1990), pp. 187-208
  • A. de Swaan, The Netherlands: Coalitions in a Segmented Polity, in: E.C. Browne and J. Dreijmanis (eds.), Government Coalitions in Western Democracies, New York: Longman, 1982, pp. 217-236 (On coalition formation at the local level, see ad 3.8).

The importance of the cabinet formation as a policy-making arena is the focus of:

  • A. Timmermans, High Politics in the Low Countries; Functions and Effects of Coalition Policy Agreements in Belgium and the Netherlands, Florence: PhD thesis European University Institute, 1996
  • P. Tops and K. Dittrich, The Role of Policy in Dutch Coalition Building, in: M. Laver and I. Budge (eds.), Party Policy and Government Coalitions, New York: St Martin’s Press, 1992, pp. 277-311
  • R.L. Peterson et al., Government Formation and Policy Formulation; Patterns in Belgium and the Netherlands, Res Publica, Vol.18 (1983), pp. 49-82.

On the recruitment of ministers, an extensive dataset has been collected at Leiden University, covering all ministers in office since 1848. See:

  • W.P. Secker, The Social Background and Recruitment of Dutch Ministers Since 1948 in a Comparative Perspective, The Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 30 (1994), pp. 128-147
  • W.E. Bakema and W.P. Secker, Ministerial Expertise and the Dutch Case, European Journal of Political Research, Vol.16 (1988), pp. 153-170. 

The structure of the Dutch cabinet is treated in:

  • R.B. Andeweg,The Netherlands: Coalition Cabinets in Changing Circumstances, in: J. Blondel and F. Müller-Rommel (eds.), Cabinets in Western Europe, sec. ed., London: Macmillan, 1997, 52-74
  • R.B. Andeweg, The Dutch Prime Minister: Not Just Chairman, Not Yet Chief? In G.W. Jones (ed.), West European Prime Ministers, London: Cass, 1991, pp. 116-132 (also published in West European Politics, Vol.14:2 (1991)). 

For perspectives on cabinet decision-making in the Netherlands, see:

  • M.V. Metselaar and B. Verbeek, Beyond Decision Making in Formal and Informal Groups: the Dutch Cabinet and the West New Guinea Conflict, in: P. ’t Hart, E.K. Stern and B. Sundelius (eds), Beyond Groupthink; Political Group Dynamics and Foreign Policy-Making, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997, 95-122
  • R.B. Andeweg and W.E. Bakema, The Netherlands: Ministers and Cabinet Policy. In: M. Laver and K.A. Shepsle (eds.), Cabinet Ministers and Parliamentary Government, Cambridge University Press, 1994, pp. 56-72
  • I.N. Gallhofer, W.E. Saris and R. Voogt, From Individual Preferences to Group Decisions in Foreign Policy Decision Making: the Dutch Council of Ministers, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 25 (1994), pp. 151-170
  • R.B. Andeweg, Centrifugal Forces and Collective Decision-Making: the Case of the Dutch Cabinet, European Journal of Political Research, Vol.16 (1988), pp. 125-151. 

On the causes and consequences of cabinet crises, see:

  • B. Grofman and P. van Roozendaal, Toward a Theoretical Explanation of Premature Cabinet Termination: With Application to Post-War Cabinets in the Netherlands, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 26 (1994), pp. 155-170
  • H.M. Narud and G.A. Irwin, Must the Breaker Pay? Cabinet Crises and Electoral Trade-Offs, Acta Politica, Vol. 29 (1994), pp. 265-284. 
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